From dream to reality. Today - experimentation and development of technology, in the future - cryopreservation of tissue, organs and of whole organism itself.
Abstracts for the 41 th Scientific Session Moscow Clinical Research Center (TSNIIG). March 6, 2015
UDALOVA V. V., Scientific and Technical Center of Cryobiology and hibernation, Moscow
Hibernation - slowing down of life processes in animals, is characterised by a drop in body temperature, diminished breathing and heart rates, inhibition of nervous activity as well as other physiological processes; it is a state of "deep sleep." Since the 70s of the 20th century, storage of cells and tissues for medical purposes has been acquiring ever greater importance. This technology is already present in day to day practice. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to achieve reversible cryopreservation of kidney, liver, heart and other organs.
We are constantly working on producing technology for long-term organ storage for further transplantation. Hypothermic techniques of slowing down vital functions are already employed in surgery. Small intestine can be cooled down to -196 ° C, followed by successful transplantation. Ovaries, sperm, embryos undergo cryopreservation well enough to provide for viable samples, usable for reproduction. In 2004, a company named "21st Century Medicine" cryopreserved rabbit kidney, and followed it by a successful transplantation, and a year later an Israeli laboratory belonging to Amir Arwa group succeeded in cryopreserving porcine liver with a high degree of pigs' survival, followed by a successful transplantation. It has become clear that the preservation of human organs is possible in principle, although there are still technological difficulties in cooling of large objects. In the 80s, research department at Alcor cryonics organization (USA) has produced a technology of artificial hibernation (vital functions suspension) of mammals. Experimental animals (dogs) have had their blood replaced with a protective solution and their hearts and brains stopped. The body of the animal has then been cooled down to + 5 ° C. Animals have been spending 4.5 hours in this state, after which the operation of the circulatory system has been re-launched, and the animals have been re-warmed back to normal temperature. There has been a complete recovery with neither brain damage nor behavioral disorders. Refinement of this technology allowed to make the move to clinical trials on humans (Pittsburgh, USA).
The purpose of cryonics is to prevent the destruction of the organism as it is cooled to cryogenic, ultra-low temperatures and later re-warmed, as well as to preserve of the possibility of resuscitation.
Practical application of cryonics allowed to accumulate data and knowledge necessary for further enhancement of conservation technology for large biological objects, allowing to stabilize patients with severe trauma and heart failure, thus prolonging life suspension to 1.5 hours or even more. This makes it possible to relocate patients from remote areas, as well as to increase the time available for various complex surgical and resuscitative measures while simultaneously decreasing negative effects. Further development of this technology shall allow to achieve reversible cryopreservation of people, and in the near future - to improve the quality and the quantity of donated neural stem cells.
Currently the problem of creating cryobanks for donor organs has not yet been solved, especially considering logistics, required to provide for the harvesting, preservation and transplantation of organs. It is necessary to create cryonics medical centers of the future, combining both clinical and research departments. Such a center may also play the role of cryostorage for people in the state of cryogenic hibernation.
Since 2014 at the "Scientific and Technical Center of Cryobiology and suspended animation", there is being developed a project named "Kriogarant" - a unified platform for testing protocols for cryopreservation with the help of computer and mathematical analysis. There are plans for introduction of various physical methods of cryopreservation control to practice, as well as for creation of equipment for automatic execution of cryopreservation protocols in accordance with a given program for effective cooling, which may be applied in human hibernation for clinical purposes.
Later was published an article in the journal Doktor.Ru
Publisher: Non-profit partnership to promote the development of health care and medicine "RUSMEDICAL groups" (Moscow)
Udalova V. V. From dream to reality. Today - experimentation and development of technology, in the future - cryopreservation of tissue, organs and of whole organism itself.
Tipe: an article in magazine - scientific article. Language: Russian.
Number: 2-2 Year: 2015 Pages: 6-7
Translated by: Sergey Ivanov with supporting of Larin Artem P.